LI Shuqing,ZHANG Jingdan,JI Cheng,et al.Effects of inoculation of complex microbial inoculants on the process and greenhouse gas(CH4and N2O) emissions of cattle manure aerobic composting[J].Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University,2017,40(6):1041-1050.[doi:10.7685/jnau.201707004]





Effects of inoculation of complex microbial inoculants on the process and greenhouse gas(CH4and N2O) emissions of cattle manure aerobic composting
李舒清1 张镜丹1 纪程1 顾文文2 李荣1 邹建文1
1. 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210095;
2. 江苏峻德生态农业科技有限公司, 江苏 淮安 223300
LI Shuqing1 ZHANG Jingdan1 JI Cheng1 GU Wenwen2 LI Rong1 ZOU Jianwen1
1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;
2. Jiangsu Junde Ecological Agriculture Technology Co. Ltd., Huai’an 223300, China
aerobic compostingcattle manurecomplex microbial inoculantsmaturitygreenhouse gas
[目的] 畜禽粪便好氧堆肥是实现废弃物稳定化、无害化和资源化的重要途径,但在实施过程中往往进度较慢,同时会产生大量温室气体污染环境。评估接种特定微生物后对畜禽粪便堆肥进程及温室气体产生的影响可为开发相应改良堆肥的菌剂产品提供理论依据。[方法] 设置牛粪好氧条垛式堆肥试验,通过常规理化指标测定、静态暗箱法和荧光定量PCR分别研究了接种含解淀粉芽孢杆菌和灰绿曲霉的复合菌剂对牛粪堆肥进程、温室气体(CH4和N2O)产生和相关功能基因丰度的影响。[结果] 接种复合菌剂加快了堆体升温,堆肥3 d即超过60.0℃,最高温度达到74.0℃;对照处理堆肥9 d时温度才达到60.0℃以上,最高温度为69.7℃。堆肥接菌处理后与对照相比pH值和含水率均下降,而电导率相差不大。接种复合菌剂显著降低堆体的C/N,在22 d时已下降至12.8,而对照处理至32 d才下降至12.5;2个处理间的铵硝含量相差不大。不同处理堆肥的CH4与N2O排放均呈此消彼长的趋势,其中CH4排放主要集中在堆肥前期,且接种复合菌剂显著降低了CH4排放通量(峰值排放通量分别为894.9和1 241.4 mg·m-2·h-1)。定量PCR结果表明:接菌处理显著降低了甲烷产生相关功能基因mcrA的丰度,而增加了甲烷氧化相关功能基因pmoA的丰度。N2O排放主要集中在堆肥后期,2个处理间排放通量相差不大,相关功能基因(amoA、nirKnosZ)的丰度变化趋势也比较接近。[结论] 牛粪好氧堆肥中接种复合菌剂可有效加速堆体升温,延长堆肥高温期时间,加速堆肥腐熟进程,同时减少温室气体CH4的排放,有利于实现堆肥快速腐熟及无害化。该技术可为优化高温好氧堆肥处理牛粪等固体废弃物提供理论依据与技术支持。
[Objectives] Aerobic composting of manure is an alternative strategy for stabilization, harmlessness and resourcelization of the wastes;but the composting process is usually time-consuming, and is also an important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions. Evaluating the effects of specific inoculates on composting process of manure composting and GHG production could provide theoretical basis for developing relevant microbial products for improving composting.[Methods] In this study, an experiment involving aerobic cattle manure composing was performed, and the effects of inoculation of complex microbial inoculants (including strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Aspergillus fumigatus)on the maturity process, GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O), and abundance of relevant functional genes, were investigated by regular measurements of physicochemical indexes, a vented chamber method, and Real-time quantitative PCR, respectively.[Results] Results indicated that inoculation of the complex microbial agents accelerated the heating process of composting, where the temperature of the inoculated pile reached 60.0℃ at 3 d while the control needed 9 days;also the highest temperature in treatment and control were observed to be 74.0℃ and 69.7℃, respectively. Adding of the microbial inoculants also decreased the pH and moisture of the composting as compared with those of control, while the electric conductivity (EC)of the two treatments was similar. Moreover, inoculation speeded up the decrease of C/N, as the ratio in inoculated pile decreased to 12.8 at 22 d while it was recovered as 12.5 in control pile at 32 d. CH4 and N2O emissions revealed trade-off patterns in both treatments. CH4was mainly produced at the initial stage of composting, and inoculation of the multiple strains significantly decreased its emissions as compared with control (peak of 894.9 mg·m-2·h-1 and 1 241.4 mg·m-2·h-1, respectively). Real-time PCR analysis indicated that addition of microbial agents increased mcrA abundance (referred to production of methane)but decreased pmoA abundance (involved in methane oxidation)when comparing with control. N2O emissions were observed to mainly occur at the later period of the composting and were similar within both treatments. The dynamics of population of functional genes relevant to N-cycle (amoA, nirK and nosZ)were also similar between treatment and control.[Conclusions] In conclusion, this study suggested that inoculation of the complex microbial inoculants could accelerate the heating process of manure composting, extend the thermophilic phase, and speed up the maturity, as well as decreasing the CH4emissions thus ensure harmlessness and fast maturity of the composting. This strategy could provide theoretical basis and technical assistance for management of solid wastes such as aerobic thermophilic composting.


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更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01