[1]高舒迪,杨晨滟,邓小鹏,等.叶面施肥对烟叶中K和Zn元素的吸收与转运的影响[J].南京农业大学学报,2018,41(2):330-340.[doi:10.7685/jnau.201706033]
 GAO Shudi,YANG Chenyan,DENG Xiaopeng,et al.Study on absorption and transport of K and Zn by foliar application in tobacco leaves[J].Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University,2018,41(2):330-340.[doi:10.7685/jnau.201706033]
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叶面施肥对烟叶中K和Zn元素的吸收与转运的影响()
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《南京农业大学学报》[ISSN:1000-2030/CN:32-1148/S]

卷:
41卷
期数:
2018年2期
页码:
330-340
栏目:
出版日期:
2018-03-27

文章信息/Info

Title:
Study on absorption and transport of K and Zn by foliar application in tobacco leaves
作者:
高舒迪1 杨晨滟1 邓小鹏2 夏妍1 沈振国1 陈亚华1
1. 南京农业大学生命科学学院, 江苏 南京 210095;
2. 云南省烟草农业科学研究院, 云南 昆明 650021
Author(s):
GAO Shudi1 YANG Chenyan1 DENG Xiaopeng2 XIA Yan1 SHEN Zhenguo1 CHEN Yahua1
1. College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;
2. Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650021, China
关键词:
叶面肥KZn烟草转运能谱分析
Keywords:
foliar fertilizerpotassiumzinctobaccotransportenergy dispersive spectrometer
分类号:
S143.3;Q945.1
DOI:
10.7685/jnau.201706033
摘要:
[目的]研究缺K或缺Zn烟叶在叶面增施K或Zn肥后,烟叶对K或Zn元素的吸收以及在不同叶位间的转运和分配规律。[方法]采用水培试验,控制不同供K(0、1、2、3、6、12、24和48 mmol·L-1)或Zn(0、0.1、0.2、0.4、0.6、0.77、3.08和6.16 μmol·L-1)水平,研究烟叶合适的K或Zn含量及缺素临界值;对缺K或缺Zn烟株的中位叶(倒3叶)施用30 g·L-1KNO3或3 g·L-1 ZnSO4溶液,分别于处理后0、0.04、0.17、0.5、1、2、4、7、14和21 d取样,测定中位叶及上位叶、下位叶的干质量和元素含量。利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)与能谱分析(EDS)测定3个部位叶片主叶脉或叶柄不同组织K、Zn的相对含量。[结果]营养液供K水平低于4 mmol·L-1或供Zn水平小于0.4 μmol·L-1时,会明显影响烟株生长;烟叶缺K或缺Zn的临界值分别为11.5%和14.2 mg·kg-1。对缺K或缺Zn烟株中部叶片(倒3叶)施用K或Zn肥,K或Zn在不同叶片间的转运速度很快,0.04 d后即转运到上位叶或下位叶;上位叶K含量明显高于下位叶,说明K优先向上位叶转运;而下位叶Zn含量大于上位叶,Zn会大量积累在下位叶。能谱分析表明:K容易向幼嫩的分生组织转运;K可以同时通过韧皮部和木质部向上位叶及下位叶转运,但通过韧皮部转运较多;烟草叶片叶脉内K主要分布于薄壁组织,中位叶施K肥后,上位叶、中位叶、下位叶的近轴表皮、近轴薄壁组织、维管组织、远轴薄壁组织和远轴表皮的K相对含量均增加,薄壁组织增加较多。[结论]叶面施K肥后,K可以同时通过韧皮部和木质部快速向其他缺素叶片转运,K优先向上位叶转运。而叶面施Zn肥后,Zn能快速向上位叶、下位叶转运,且在下位叶有大量的积累。如果烟株严重缺K,建议每隔4 d重复叶面喷施30 g·L-1 KNO3溶液;对于缺Zn烟叶,喷施1次3 g·L-1即可起到明显的补Zn效果。
Abstract:
[Objectives]Effects of the foliar fertilizer on the uptake of K or Zn,as well as translocation and distribution among different position of tobacco leaf were studied under the lack of K or Zn conditions. [Methods]In order to study the suitable contents and the critical value of nutrient deficiency of K or Zn of tobacco under different levels of K(0,1,2,3,6,12,24 and 48 mmol·L-1) or Zn(0,0.1,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.77,3.08 and 6.16 μmol·L-1),hydroponic experiments were used. After treatments of 30 g·L-1 KNO3 or 3 g·L-1 ZnSO4 to the median leaves(third leaves) of tobacco which were lack of K or Zn,leaf samples(the median leaves and their superior leaves and inferior leaves) were collected on 0,0.04,0.17,0.5,1,2,4,7,14 and 21 d,respectively. Then dry weight and nutrient contents were measured. Besides,the relative contents of K or Zn in different tissues of veins or petiole were determined by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS). [Results]The growth of tobacco was affected by content of K(<4 mmol·L-1) and Zn(<0.4 μmol·L-1),significantly,and the critical values of tobacco K and Zn deficiency were 11.5% and 14.2 mg·kg-1,respectively. 0.04 day after the foliar fertilizer treatments,the K and Zn were transported to different parts of leaves with high speed. The concentration of K in the superior leaf was significantly higher than that in the inferior leaf,indicating that K was preferentially transported to the superior leaf. On the contrary,Zn accumulated in the inferior leaf heavily. EDS analysis showed that K tended to be transported to tender meristems,it could also be transported through phloem and xylem to the superior leaf and the inferior leaf simultaneously,but more through phloem. K was distributed mainly in the parenchyma in the leaves of tobacco,and the relative contents of K in the adaxial epidermis,adaxial parenchyma,vascular tissue,abaxial parenchyma,abaxial epidermis of the superior leaf,the median leaf and the inferior leaf increased significantly,of which vascular tissue increased most. [Conclusions]K could be transported rapidly through phloem and xylem to other nutrient deficient leaves at the same time and it tended to be transported to the superior leaf under the treatments of the K foliar fertilizer. Zn could be transported rapidly to the superior leaf and the inferior leaf,but was accumulated in the inferior leaf heavily under the treatments of the Zn foliar fertilizer. We recommended using 30 g·L-1 KNO3 every 4 days for several times to alleviate the symptom of severe K deficiency. But for the lack of Zn,spraying 3 g·L-1 ZnSO4 for once could obviously alleviate the symptom.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2017-06-21。
基金项目:中国烟草总公司云南省公司科技计划项目(2015YN04,2016YN28)
作者简介:高舒迪,硕士研究生。
通信作者:邓小鹏,助理研究员,研究方向为烤烟营养,E-mail:hddxp@163.com;陈亚华,教授,研究方向为植物营养,E-mail:yahuachen@njau.edu.cn。
更新日期/Last Update: 1900-01-01