[1]高帅,潘勇辉,孙玉明,等.不同供氮水平对常规稻与杂交稻产量及氮素利用效率的影响[J].南京农业大学学报,2018,41(6):1061-1069.[doi:10.7685/jnau.201803042]
 GAO Shuai,PAN Yonghui,SUN Yuming,et al.Effects of different nitrogen supply on yield and nitrogen utilization of conventional rice and hybrid rice[J].Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University,2018,41(6):1061-1069.[doi:10.7685/jnau.201803042]
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不同供氮水平对常规稻与杂交稻产量及氮素利用效率的影响()
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《南京农业大学学报》[ISSN:1000-2030/CN:32-1148/S]

卷:
41卷
期数:
2018年6期
页码:
1061-1069
栏目:
出版日期:
2018-11-25

文章信息/Info

Title:
Effects of different nitrogen supply on yield and nitrogen utilization of conventional rice and hybrid rice
作者:
高帅1 潘勇辉1 孙玉明1 郭俊杰1 王成孜1 凌宁1 张燕2 郭世伟1
1. 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210095;
2. 如皋市农业科学研究所, 江苏 如皋 226575
Author(s):
GAO Shuai1 PAN Yonghui1 SUN Yuming1 GUO Junjie1 WANG Chengzi1 LING Ning1 ZHANG Yan2 GUO Shiwei1
1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095;
2. Rugao Agricultural Research Institute, Rugao 226575, China
关键词:
常规稻杂交稻氮素水平产量形成氮肥利用率
Keywords:
conventional ricehybrid riceN levelyield formationN utilization rate
分类号:
S143.1
DOI:
10.7685/jnau.201803042
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
[目的]通过研究不同施氮水平下常规稻、杂交稻的生长发育特征及产量形成过程,旨在明确常规稻、杂交稻的生长规律及其对氮素的响应差异。[方法]以江苏省沿江及苏南地区主推的常规稻品种‘镇稻11’和湖南地区广泛种植的杂交稻品种‘Y两优3218’为试验材料,研究了不同施氮水平(N0:0 kg·hm-2;N90:90 kg·hm-2;N180:180 kg·hm-2;N270:270 kg·hm-2;N360:360 kg·hm-2)对‘镇稻11’和‘Y两优3218’的分蘖动态、生物量累积、产量形成以及氮素利用效率的影响。[结果]在不同施氮水平下,杂交稻在生育前期的生长速率均显著高于常规稻,而在开花—成熟期无显著差异。常规稻与杂交稻的生物量及产量均在施氮水平为180 kg·hm-2时最高,2016和2017年平均分别为9 167和10 502 kg·hm-2。在各施氮水平下,杂交稻的产量比常规稻显著增加15.62%~45.48%。常规稻与杂交稻对氮肥的利用效率均随施氮量的增加呈逐渐下降的趋势。与常规稻相比,杂交稻对氮素的吸收速率较快,地上部的氮素分配比例受水稻品种和氮水平的影响,2个品种水稻穗中的氮素分配在高氮条件下显著低于低氮处理。杂交稻穗中的氮素分配比例在低氮条件下(N0、N90)显著高于常规稻,在高氮条件下(N270、N360)低于常规稻。在施氮量大于等于180 kg·hm-2时,杂交稻的氮肥农学效率显著低于常规稻。[结论]施氮对水稻的生物量和产量均有显著影响,与常规稻相比,杂交稻生物量及库容更大,导致杂交稻高产;同时杂交稻对氮素的利用效率更高,本试验模拟的常规稻和杂交稻最佳施氮量分别为133和76 kg·hm-2。通过氮肥管理可以进一步提升杂交稻的产量并实现高产高效。
Abstract:
[Objectives] Through examining the growth and development characteristics as well as the yield formation processes of conventional and hybrid rice under different nitrogen (N)levels, we aim to clarify the growth rhythm of conventional and hybrid rice as well as their differences in responses to N. [Methods] ‘Zhendao 11’, the mainly popularized conventional cultivar in the riverside and southern area of Jiangsu Province and ‘Y Liangyou 3218’, the widely planted hybrid rice in Hunan Province, were taken as the experimental materials. The effect of different N levels (N0:0 kg·hm-2;N90:90 kg·hm-2;N180:180 kg·hm-2;N270:270 kg·hm-2;N360:360 kg·hm-2)on the tiller dynamics, biomass accumulation, grain yield formation and N use efficiency were studied. [Results] Under different N levels, the growth rate of hybrid rice was significantly higher than that of conventional rice at the early growth stage, while no significant differences were observed at the flowering-maturity stage. In our current study, both the highest biomass and yield were observed under 180 kg·hm-2 amendment, which was 9 167 and 10 502 kg·hm-2 for conventional and hybrid rice respectively. The grain yield of hybrid rice was higher than that of conventional rice under different N levels (15.62%-45.48%). The N absorption rate of hybrid rice was faster when compared with conventional rice. Moreover, the distribution of aboveground N was influenced by both rice cultivars and N levels, and the distribution ratio in spikes of two rice cultivars were significantly lower under high N levels when compared with low N condition. Interestingly, under low N conditions (N0, N90), the distribution ratio in spikes of hybrid rice was significantly higher than that of conventional rice, while no significant difference was observed under high N conditions (N270, N360). The N agronomic efficiency of hybrid rice was significantly lower than that of conventional rice, when the N application was higher than 180 kg·hm-2. [Conclusions] Nitrogen application had a significant effect on rice biomass and yield. Compared with conventional rice, the biomass and storage capacity of hybrid rice were greater, resulting in higher yield of hybrid rice and higher nitrogen use efficiency of hybrid rice. According to our experimental experience, the best nitrogen application rates for conventional rice and hybrid rice were 133 and 76 kg·hm-2respectively. Through the management of nitrogen fertilizer, the yield of hybrid rice can be further improved and high yield and high efficiency can be achieved.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期:2018-03-21。
基金项目:国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503122);江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目[CX(16)1001]
作者简介:高帅,硕士研究生。
通信作者:郭世伟,教授,主要研究方向为土壤肥料及植物营养生理,E-mail:sguo@njau.edu.cn。
更新日期/Last Update: 2018-11-23